Automated Generation of Modelling Programs Using Jena and Protege


This paper explains a technique of User Driven Model Development that could be part of a wider approach of User Driven Programming. This approach involves the creation of a visual environment for software development, where modelling programs can be created without the requirement of the model developer to learn programming languages. The theory behind this approach is explained but the main practical work in creation of this system is in its’ early stages. The basis of this approach is modelling of the software to be produced in Ontology systems such as Jena and Protégé.


The Systems Engineering Estimation and Decision Support (SEEDS) team is part of the Aerospace Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) at the University of the West of England (UWE). SEEDS expertise is in applying techniques in managing, categorising and visualising information to provide decision support for design and manufacturing.

The SEEDS team have completed large projects and are experienced in creation of software for costing and decision support modelling. The SEEDS team recently completed the DATUM (Design Analysis Tool for Unit cost Modelling) project with Rolls-Royce aerospace. For this the team created sophisticated decision support models and web output.

The research outlined in this paper unites approaches of object orientation, the semantic web, relational databases, and event driven programming. Tim Berners-Lee defined the semantic web as ‘a web of data that can be processed directly or indirectly by machines’ This research examines ways of structuring information, and enabling processing and searching of the information to provide a modelling capability, and enable the automation of model production.

The main ontology tool used in the research so far is Protégé – home page The projects that use Protégé page links to information about other projects that use this tool. Further research involves the use of Jena to develop the web based view of our ontology, and further Protégé and Jena based tools to develop the user interface for automated programming by end users for this system. Some research of others that have explored this further than us is at []. A particular paper of interest to us, for our research in semantic web based decision support systems is that on the ACUITy system. The presentation and paper for this are at [] and [].


To achieve the aims outlined above it is necessary to allow model developers (who would be users of our software) to collaborate to share and develop models. The method of enabling this is to provide templates to enable non-programmers to develop software models for the purposes that interest them. [Olsson] explains the advantages of increasing user involvement in software development. Collaboration and knowledge sharing would be important in this process with models being sharable over the web. This form of collaboration would be based on the ‘open source’ method of co-operation where source code and explanations are added to a web site and comments and improvements would be encouraged. Some examples of this form of co-operation are the Wikipedia collaborative online encyclopaedia, the Mozilla Firefox browser development and the Semantic Web Environmental directory (SWED) []. The intention is to create an online community that can provide and use free software for modelling and education.

The advantages of open source collaboration are that as well as allowing researchers to co-operate and work together where they share an interest; it will also allow the untapped potential to be developed of those who do not have an official research position. This could include students, people employed outside the academic environment, retired people and amateurs’ who have useful expertise. Astronomy for example has harnessed skills of this very diverse range of people to make new discoveries. The advantage of this wide involvement could be in getting feedback on usefulness, or ease of use of software, as well as their actual involvement in model development.

[Aziz et al.] Examine how open standards software can assist in an organisations’ collaborative product development. The methods used and success of others that had used an approach of web based collaboration have been examined. This approach is outlined in [Ciancarini et al.]; [Huang and Mak]; [Kim et al.]; [Li]; [Morris et al.]; [Nidamarthi et al.]; [Reed et al.]; [Zhang et al.]. The above research reinforced our view that this is a sensible approach.


A web based collaborative approach is demonstrated on our SEEDS team web site at Examples of semantic web costing, searching, and decision support techniques will be freely available and could be used within universities and in outside industry and the community. Such modelling would be useful for, but not limited to, decision support for design and manufacture of products, simulation of manufacturing processes or business processes, economic forecasting, scientific modelling, medicine, business decision making, construction, and cost benefit analysis. It could also be used for modelling of systems for educational use. These models would illustrate and explain processes. Such modelling would be useful to universities as an illustration of concepts to students, and as a chance to participate in the development of modelling systems.

Software Approach

[Huhns] and [Paternò] both explain that alternatives to the current approach to software development are required. This should allow translation from a model-based representation of software to the actual software. This could involve automatically producing software for a semantic web site from visual representations of the problem. The core of this modelling infrastructure would be automated generation of models written using World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards based languages and the visualisation of information represented in such W3C standard ways.

Ontology systems such as Protégé [http://prot]égé, Jena, and Kaon either individually or in combination will be used to create our ontology. So far Protégé and Jena have been investigated for this. The use of RDF/XML (Resource Description Framework using Extensible Markup Language syntax) allows XQuery and SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language) to be used for searching. The ability of Jena and Protege to save in relational database format also makes it possible to use SQL (Structured Query Language). Using these standards it is possible to represent information in Jena, Protégé, or other ontology systems. All this flexibility is useful when different organisations are not all using the same systems. An important reason for creating an open standards central ontology is that it can be accessed by many different applications. The open standard OWL (Web Ontology Language) is explained by [Bechhofer and Carroll]. Research of others in this field have been investigated [Corcho]; [Corcho and Gómez-Pérez] and [Noy]. Issues involved in visualisation of lightweight ontologies are examined by [Fluit et al.].

This ontology could then be read into a decision support system which outputs results in web formats, this would also allow information that is relevant to different faculties or organisations to be shared. To enable creation of web pages by people who are not experts in this task, open source content management tool such as Rainbow Portal or the Zope Community Content Management Framework (CMF), which is currently used at UWE could be considered. Ajax techniques for creation of highly interactive web pages may assist in this


This approach is to enable a type of very high level Meta programming. Meta-programming and structured language is explained by Dmitriev and [Mens et al]. This is intended to mitigate the problems of cost and time over-run, and failure to achieve objectives that are the common malaise of software development. The creation of a web based visual representation of the information will allow people to examine and agree on information structures. It is envisaged that a translation system to create software from diagrams that represent the problem is developed. The Figure illustrates our approach to provision of a system to enable users to create and/or use their own models.

Translation Process

To achieve this requires –

1 Search trigger(s) resulting from user actions.

2 Knowledge of the relationships between nodes in the tree.

3 Ability to read equations held in a standardised mathematical form.

4 Rules of syntax for the language of the code to be output.

The SEEDS teams’ approach involves creation of an elaborator or translator that converts the diagrammatic representation of the problem into software, in various computer languages or a meta-programming syntax. The software created falls into two categories. The first category is structuring, sorting, and searching of information Jena, Protégé [http://prot]égé, Exist XQuery, Orbeon Xforms This kind of software can be both the ontology editor and the output format. The other category of software would be used for modelling and would be an output, this includes Cost Estimator [Koonce et al.] [Wujek et al.], metaL and Simkin The elaborator needs to follow a structured taxonomy to establish how related concepts represented visually can be represented in equivalent code. The visualisation can be either as a colour coded tree or an interactive SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) diagram of a component to be modelled.

The research undertaken aims to adapt or create software systems to provide the visual editor for the source tree, and allow model builders to create a model by editing this. By doing so the model builders would create a generic model for a particular modelling subject. DecisionPro can be used to convert the taxonomy into a decision support and modelling system. Vanguard is making their server available for collaborative model development. The model users could then use this decision support and modelling system to create their models. These models would be a more specific subset of the generic model, and could be applied for their own analysis. Our team would also provide a translation mechanism to convert information or models into other languages (primarily web based), and to visualise this information. Researchers could also create individual learning objects for education.


The technique of User Driven Programming can be achieved through the use of highly structured languages and visualisation of these structures to allow editing. Examples of software created this way are available at This project would give people more access to software for modelling, education, and allow them to develop their own software.


Aziz, H., Gao, J., Maropoulos, P., Cheung, W. M. (2005) Open standard, open source and peer-to-peer tools and methods for collaborative product development. Computers in Industry, 56, 260-271.

Bechhofer S., Carrol J. (2004) Parsing owl dl: trees or triples? Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, NY, USA pp 266 – 275.

Ciancarini, P. & Rossi, D. & Vitali, F. (2001) Designing a document-centric coordination application over the Internet. Interacting with Computers, 13 677-693.

Corcho, O., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2000) A Roadmap to Ontology Specification Languages. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. Chicago, USA.

Corcho, O. Fernández-López, M., Gómez-Pérez, A. (2003). Methodologies, Tools and Languages For Building Ontologies. Where is their Meeting Point?. Data and Knowledge Engineering, 46, 41-64.

Fluit C., Marta S., Harmelen F. V., Staab S., Studer R. (2003) Handbook on Ontologies in Information Systems. Springer-Verlag.

Huang, G. Q., Mak, K. L. (2001) Issues in the development and implementation of web applications for product design and manufacture. Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 14 (1), 125-135.

Huhns, M. (2001) Interaction-Oriented Software Development. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 11 259-279.

Kim Y., Choi Y., Bong Yoo S. (2001) Brokering and 3D collaborative viewing of mechanical part models on the Web, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 14 (1), 28-41.

Li, W. D. (2005) A Web-based service for distributed process planning optimization. Computers in Industry, 56, 272-288.

Mens, K., Michiels, I., Wuyts, R. (2002) Supporting Software Development through Declaratively Codified Programming Patterns. Expert Systems with Applications 23, 405-413.

Morris, S., Neilson, I., Charlton, C., Little, J. (2001) Interactivity and collaboration on the WWW – is the ‘WWW shell’ sufficient?. Interacting with Computers, 13, 717-730.

Nidamarthi S., Allen R. H., Ram D. S. (2001) Observations from supplementing the traditional design process via Internet-based collaboration tools, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 14 (1), 95-107.

Noy N.F. (2004) Semantic Integration: A Survey Of Ontology-Based Approaches. SIGMOD Record, Special Issue on Semantic Integration, 33 (4).

Olsson, E. (2004) What active users and designers contribute in the design process. Interacting with Computers 16, 377-401.

Paternò, F. (2005) Model-based tools for pervasive usability. Interacting with Computers 17 (3), 291-315.

Reed, J. A., Follen, G. J., Afjeh A. A. (2000) Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-Based Modeling and Simulation. ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 10 (1), 58-83.

Zhang, S., Weimen, S., Hamada, G. (2004) A review of Internet-based product information sharing and visualization. Computers in Industry, 54, 1-15.

I am a Researcher in the final year of my PhD. I specialise in applying Semantic Web techniques. My current research is on a technique of ‘User Driven Modelling/Programming’. My intention is to enable non-programmers to create software from a user interface that allows them to model a particular problem or scenario. This involves a user entering information visually in the form of a tree diagram. I am attempting to develop ways of automatically translating this information into program code in a variety of computer languages. This is very important and useful for many employees that have insufficient time to learn programming languages. I am looking to research visualisation, and visualisation techniques to create a human computer interface that allows non experts to create software.

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TFG invests in management solution to safeguard supply chain

The Foschini Group (TFG) has chosen CA Southern Africa’s Application Program Interface (API) management solution to support its digitalisation strategy across its 2,200 stores in 31 countries.
TFG invests in management solution to safeguard supply chain
© gstockstudio via 123RF
Craig de Lucchi, account manager, CA Southern Africa, says, “TFG required a solution that would safeguard the supply chain and support new digital initiatives. It needed to enable seamless systems integration with its suppliers, while maintaining security.”

The system enables TFG to receive automated alerts about product shipments by its suppliers. “TFG is also integrating its e-commerce platform with stock management systems to provide its customers with up to the minute product information. Essentially it delivers a seamless customer experience both online and in-store and provides customers with information on stock availability which in turn enables the company to better manage customer expectations,”

Wayne Beckley, senior enterprise architect at TFG, says the company was keen to improve visibility of the supply chain and establish greater automation. “We particularly wanted suppliers to be able to automatically notify us when goods were shipped.”

The group had various tools in place for integration but significant development effort was required, which was costly and time-consuming. “We selected the CA Technologies solution, implemented by CA Southern Africa, because its flexible policies enable us to govern and secure our APIs. It also works seamlessly with Active Directory,” continues Beckley. “The digitalisation of its business will facilitate the group’s growth into the future and help to position it at the front of a highly competitive market.”

de Lucchi notes that APIs are the building blocks of digital transformation. “To compete successfully and thrive today, enterprises across every industry need to transform. This process is not about incremental improvement but also about evolving core businesses to meet the demands of today’s connected world. API management accelerates this digital transformation by providing the capabilities you need to bring systems together, secure these integrations, deliver better customer experiences faster and capitalise on new opportunities,” he concludes.

Foschini downloads digital strategy

CA Southern Africa has announced that TFG has implemented the CA API (Application Program Interface) Management solution to drive the digitalisation of its business and supply chain. TFG fashion and lifestyle retailer operates in 31 countries and has 2,200 stores across Africa and recently expanded into the UK.
Image by 123RF
Image by 123RF
According to Craig de Lucchi, account manager, CA Southern Africa, TFG required a solution that would safeguard the supply chain and support new digital initiatives. “The company needed to enable seamless systems integration with its suppliers while maintaining security.”

CA API Management enables TFG to receive automated alerts about product shipments by its suppliers. “TFG is also integrating its ecommerce platform with stock management systems to provide its customers with up to the minute product information. Essentially it delivers a seamless customer experience both online and in-store and provides customers with information on stock availability which in turn enables the company to better manage customer expectations.”

Wayne Beckley, senior enterprise architect at TFG, says the company was keen to improve visibility of the supply chain and establish greater automation. “We particularly wanted suppliers to be able to automatically notify us when goods were shipped,” says Beckley.

The group had various tools in place for integration but significant development effort was required, which was costly and time-consuming.

“We selected the CA Technologies solution, implemented by CA Southern Africa, because its flexible policies enable us to govern and secure our APIs. It also works seamlessly with Active Directory,” says Beckley.

He emphasises that the digitalisation of its business will facilitate TFG’s growth into the future and help to position them at the front of a highly competitive market.

De Lucchi notes that APIs are the building blocks of digital transformation. “To compete successfully and thrive today, enterprises across every industry need to transform. This process is not just about incremental improvement, but about evolving core businesses to meet the demands of today’s connected world. API management accelerates this digital transformation by providing the capabilities you need to bring systems together, secure these integrations, deliver better customer experiences faster and capitalise on new opportunities.”

How building control officers can avoid conflict of interest

The South African Council for the Architectural Profession’s (SACAP) registrar/CEO Marella O’Reilly, together with her Legal and Compliance Unit, has embarked on a campaign to clarify historic misunderstandings of the law and to educate municipalities and their building control officers (BCOs) on ways to avoid conflict of interest.
How building control officers can avoid conflict of interestParliament has given SACAP the authority and duty to regulate and guide the architectural profession with the Architectural Profession Act (No 44 of 2000).

Some BCOs are engineers and others come from within the architectural profession itself; including professional architects, senior architectural technologists, architectural technologists and architectural draughtspersons.

Registering with SACAP

A steadily growing number of BCOs and indeed all architectural professionals are placing themselves into good standing with the law by formally registering with SACAP and receiving their registration number.

O’Reilly says this is good news for keeping the built environment safe and the level of professionalism high. “To register and maintain their registration with SACAP, architectural professionals must complete continuing professional development activities throughout their career to make sure they maintain, improve and broaden their knowledge, skills and technical duties.

The registrar is educating municipalities, as well as home owners who use architectural professionals that BCOs are indeed entitled to draw plans themselves; however, municipalities need to ensure that all conflict of interest is avoided when these plans get submitted for local authority approval.

SACAP Code of Conduct

“Any plans drawn by a BCO needs to get submitted for approval to a municipality outside of the jurisdiction of that BCO,” she says. “The very same BCO cannot draw plans and have them approved in the same municipal jurisdiction where they work because no BCO must be in a position to derive personal benefit from the actions or decisions they make in their official municipal capacity.”

In her educational campaign she highlights the fact that any home owners and commercial property owners who commission an SACAP-registered professionals and feels wronged by them can ask SACAP to investigate whether that professional has acted against SACAP’s Code of Conduct and needs disciplinary action. An online copy of the code can be found on, saved under the “Who we are” section.

‘Those’ SEO Secrets…

I’ve been doing SEO in South Africa for 10 years. One of the questions I get asked a lot is, “What quick things can I do to get to the top of Google?”
The answer to this question is that you can do a lot and it’s easier than you might think:

You can simply ensure that your on-site SEO is adequate
Your targeted keyword is in the site title, description, H1 tag and content
All your images’ ALT text and your page URLs contain your keyword
Your site is getting plenty of links from automatic article directory submissions, maybe some site-wide footer links and forum/blog comments. You could even exchange links with other websites or pay for them.

The above strategy is how easy it was to rank globally for your chosen keyword back in 2009, and this strategy still seems to work just fine for most SEOs in South Africa.

‘Those’ SEO Secrets…

Now for the bad news…

In case you didn’t know, ‘those’ secrets don’t really work anymore; certainly not in today’s global SEO game. South African businesses that utilise SEO as part of their marketing strategy need to be aware that Google’s algorithm is a lot more sophisticated these days and it won’t be long before Google starts to pay more attention to how SEOs are optimising for the South African SERPs (Search Engine Results Page).

Certainly, the last bullet point above is not a recommended tactic today, and could get your site in deep trouble with Google.

The annual organic ranking-factors report by Search Metrics highlights approximately 50 of what are deemed to be the most influential signals currently at play, all contributing in varying amounts to how sites fair in the organic SERPs.

If you really want to outperform your peers online, chances are that you’re going to need to build a medium to long-term strategy that addresses as many of these signals as possible. You will need to prove to search robots and users that your website and content really does deserve to be more visible than that of your competitors.

There is hope!

With the bad news out of the way, it is worth mentioning that there are still a number of simple, but impactful, often forgotten, SEO tactics that you can use to improve your website’s overall performance and visibility. By no means are these the Holy Grail, but they will help your site to perform better and provide some valuable food for thought.

1. Optimising listings outside of the big search engines

There is no doubt that the big search engines such as Google, Bing and Yahoo account for a tonne of search online. As such, they are often the first and only places that online marketers look when trying to secure traffic. However, there are alternative places that SEO can factor-in and for certain industries, such as food, travel and automotive. These alternatives can have an extremely positive impact. Take for example:

Listing sites such as Carfax Used Cars, TripAdvisor, and Google+ Local
App Stores such as Google Play Store and iTunes
Listing Apps such as, AirBnB and Yelp

Many of these sites have their own internal algorithms and optimising towards them can aid the external search visibility of your own site, plus provide vast amounts of referral traffic. Furthermore, the quality signals associated with ranking prominently on large authoritative sites are capable of influencing visibility and rankings across large search engines too.

2. Leverage user generated content

User Generated Content (UGC) is a force to be reckoned with! Getting customers, consumers and users involved in your content creation is a great way to scale SEO efforts, build-out your site’s Information Architecture and generate trust-building consumer-focused content.

In an environment where ‘content is king’, some of the most cost-effective and efficient ways of growing content across your brand’s digital assets is to incentivise others to do it for you!

How does this look in real terms?

Q&A sections on your website
Forums with relevant topics and conversations
Surveys to build data sets that can be incorporated into rich media assets
Customer feedback

Reviews are also great ways to use UGC in building brand authority and trust while contributing towards your SEO campaign. Not only do reviews provide fresh, unique content which is keyword rich, but by using schema code to mark-up reviews you will also allow Google to present your reviews and ratings as Rich Snippets and within its Knowledge Graph.

Studies have shown that Rich Snippets and Knowledge Graph content can increase click through rate (CTR) in search engines by up to 30%.

3. Using PPC to validate your keyword strategy

Within SEO campaigns you won’t necessarily know how profitable a keyword will be until you’ve invested the time and effort to rank for it. However, this process can be expedited with paid search tests.

Say you have a very competitive keyword with 5,000 searches a month, and a much less competitive term getting 250 search a month; intuition and sheer ambition will often prompt you to invest resources into establishing your site for keyword A. However, a quick PPC test could show that keyword B produces twice the conversions as keyword A, even with such low search volume. This can then validate focusing your keyword strategy towards the lower volume, less competitive keyword in order to maximise revenue and increase conversions.

The point is that insight is incredibly valuable and should be used to help structure and sculpt an informed SEO strategy. Pay-per-click offers some great opportunities to garner this insight.

To summarise

These aren’t clever technical tricks that will catapult your site to the top of search, they are tactics that, for me, are often forgotten about or neglected, but represent healthy wins in terms of improved website performance and visibility.

SEO in South Africa is no longer something that can happen silently behind the scenes, using manipulative tactics – it is part of the overall marketing mix. Put users first and ask whether your SEO activities will benefit the customer. If the answer is yes, you know you’re investing time appropriately.

Benefits For A Business In Using Article Directory

We are living in a technological world, where things are changing at a very rapid speed. Every day, we come across a new advancement of technology and in order, to be successful; we need to update ourselves, with all these developments. These technological developments have changed the ways of life upside down. Many things that were done previously are obsolete and have been replaced by new and improved ways of carrying out activities. Same is the case, with marketing techniques adopted by businesses, these days. Being a business man, you must be well aware of the fact that marketing is one of the most significant things that one needs to carry out in a very proper manner to ensure its success, in a desired prospect. One of the best ways of marketing, nowadays, is the article marketing. What happens here is that website owner writes articles about his products and services. Once, it is written then he looks for articles directories for him. These are pretty much easily accessible. Once, the owner finds the site meeting, his needs and requirements, he submits his writing on an article directory. People come and read this article and then, by following the link mentioned in the article, they visit the site of the owner off and on.

These articles on products and services offered, by the site owner are marketed, in various ways. Let us, discuss some of the most significant benefits of articles submit for the business owners.
�Whenever, you submit articles to the article directories, it facilities the readers offering them with links that take them back to your site. It allows you to have popular link building with the leading search engines in all parts of the world. Search engines, most of the times, entertain sites that have a lot of links taking back the readers to the original site. It shows the importance of the write. More articles you will write more links for link building will be offered to you.
�More articles you will write about your products and services more exposure people will get about the business, you deal in. They will know more about your services and products; you may be, dealing in. Moreover, you can get exposure by other people, when they will take our articles with the resource box attached and then, putting these articles on their sites.
�When a reader will read an article, it will become easier to convince him to buy your product or hire our services.
�One of the best benefits of writing articles and then, submitting them is the fact that it is one of the best ways of advertisement. It is completely, free of cost as you do not have to pay anything to get your article submitted at any cost.

In short, things have changed a lot and same has been the case, with marketing. People are no more using old ways of equipping them, with knowledge, rather than, most of the people, these days make use of technological advancements to fulfill needs of the customers.

Smart Marketing With Top Articles Directory

Articles directory is a term that is not completely understood by few people. So, let us first go through what actually, an article directory is. Article directories are database websites that collect, compile, categorize the articles and make the articles visible to the public. Article submission online is a handy and easy way to get your work published on the web. Public can read these articles and rate them accordingly.

Today, with the increasing demand of articles and information related to any field in life, countless number of article directories have been created on the web among which most of them offer free membership to authors for article submission online whereas there are few top articles directory, that offer paid membership plans. Every article submission directory today has become a one-stop resource for both authors who want to submit articles online and people looking for reference articles.

For authors, who want to publish their articles and make good amount of marketing can follow a smart strategy of submitting their articles to more directories because as much as they will submit their articles to different directories, the more will be the traffic on your website if you mention the website link in your post. There are two ways to submit articles online to numerous article directories: manually or via software. When submitting through software, you’ll probably have to purchase the software so, make sure to choose the option that better suits your budget and needs so that you can fulfill all your desires and grow as a professional in future.

Well, there are tons of readers looking for articles on a daily basis, so, if you are an author, instead of keeping those well written articles with you, make sure to submit them to mass article directories so that readers can read your content and distribute them across the internet. sYour marketing for submitting article and taking your career to a next level will only succeed if you posses the right and effective way of submitting your article online to top articles directory. There are hundreds of sites including the most popular ezine owners are literally hungry for quality, fresh and unique contents so, if you want to make smart marketing of your stuff, why not simply give away your articles according to their requirement and get paid for it easily.

Keep in mind that with a single well written article, you can enter the professional world and reach potential buyers and readers at just no cost. Start preparing your articles, for a blast because many article directory owners itself is actively marketing their article directories with which your article can go a long way. To carry an effective amount of traffic to your website, it is important that you mention the website link of your site so that the traffic can visit your site when readers go through your articles on article directories. Generating traffic to your website is easy, if you follow the right strategy and ways for it.

The Cost Of Fertility Treatments – Getting Pregnant After 40

Coping with infertility is not an easy thing to do. This is especially true if you are in your 40s and are finally ready to being a baby into this world. There is nothing wrong with wanting this as it is one of the most natural desires a woman can have. Yet if you are deemed infertile, the effect can be disappointing if not devastating. In fact, there has been research that indicates the emotional and psychological stress infertile women experience is actually very comparable to the stress of having to deal with diseases such as cancer and HIV. The point is, as natural as wanting to be pregnant is to a woman, it is just as natural to be devastated when you are told you are infertile.

However, there is good news. Women who want to get pregnant, even if they are in their 40s, can with the help of fertility treatments. There are various options available to you and it is up to you to decide if you want to seek these options out. The first step is to visit medical professional and most likely, you and your partner will be given a physical exam as well as divulging your sexual histories. Once the preliminary steps are taken, your doctor may list what the fertility treatments are. Like most women and couples, upon hearing these options may appear wonderful, and they can be, as they provide hope to you. But, you and your partner should prepare yourselves for the highly emotional aspect of undergoing fertility treatments. Some treatment options are not too invasive such as taking fertility drugs but others can be very invasive such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
For many couples, it takes about three cycles for IVF treatments to work, if they work at all. So, prepare yourselves for what will surely be an emotional roller coaster.

Emotions aside, you also have to take into consideration the financial responsibilities that come with seeking fertility treatments. They are not cheap and continued use of fertility clinics and treatments can put a huge financial burden on you and your partner. For example,
popular fertility drugs such as clomiphene can cost $50 per month. This may not seem much but if these drugs do not work, other options may be recommended to you. However, should you move on to other treatments, the use of fertility drugs are commonly used in conjunction with these methods so you may still be paying $50 per month in addition to the cost of the more advanced treatments.

A common and widely known fertility treatment is IVF but IVF treatments can cost $8,000 to $15,000 per cycle depending on several factors. Now, many couples go through three or more cycles so as you can see, the cost can be very expensive. Only you can draw the
figurative line on how much financial strain and emotional strain you are willing to take. It is better to have a plan now rather than later when you feel like you must keep going and your finances spiral out of control.

Help With Infertility – Get Pregnant After 40

For many couples, getting pregnant is just a matter of not using contraception. For many others, especially if the woman is over 40 years of age, getting pregnant may seem like an unattainable goal. If you are in this latter category, the emotional, physical, and even financial burdens can take its toll on your overall health as well as your partner’s. Getting pregnant is something many couples desire and if it has taken you more than 6 months of trying to conceive without success and you are over the age of 35, you may want to seek medical assistance. If you under the age of 35, most medical professionals cite that you should try for at least 12 months before seeking medical assistance.

Being deemed infertile can be devastating but it does not mean you cannot have children. Let’s be clear on this because for many couples, infertility automatically means you cannot have children. This is false. There are many options to treat your infertility and these treatments have been used to help countless couples get pregnant. One the most popular forms of fertility treatments is the use of fertility drugs. Drugs such as Clomid have been prescribed for decades with great success due to its ease of use (it is taken orally), it does not usually cause severe side effects, and it does not need daily monitoring. If Clomid does not work, your doctor may prescribe hormone shots to stimulate ovulation. Obviously, taking shots is a bit more invasive but as long as it stimulates ovulation, it is doing its job.

Fertility drugs may not work for everyone and if you find yourself in this situation, your doctor may suggest the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) methods. Many people have heard of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and this is this the most popular form of ART. IVF just means fertilization outside of the body. The ovaries will be stimulated to produce eggs, the eggs will then be removed from the woman’s body, put into a dish along with the man’s sperm where they will fertilize the eggs. The fertilized eggs, or embryos, will then be placed back into the woman’s uterus.

There are other forms of ART methods such as zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) that can be implemented if fertility drugs and IVF prove to not be successful. With all of these options available, the success rate of ART methods is encouraging. In fact, according to a 2006 CDC report, the average percentage of ART cycles using fresh non-donor eggs that led to a healthy baby were 40.9 percent in women aged 25, 39.5 percent in women aged 30, 33.4 percent in women aged 35, and 15.4 percent in women aged 40.

Despite these numbers, it is prudent to prepare for a physically and emotionally draining period in your life. It may be a good idea to even set limits on what you and your partner are willing to go through before seeking medical help. Prepare yourselves for the physical burden as well as the emotional burden that fertility treatments entail, as you may not get pregnant right away.

Help With Pregnancy When You’re Over 40

Many factors contribute to a woman’s need to seek help with their pregnancy. This is especially the case when a woman is deemed infertile or if the woman is over over 40 years of age. As countless women hold off on starting a family until they are more established, this typically means that a woman is well into her 30s or even her 40s before she has her first child.

In fact, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services state that about 20 percent of women in the U.S. now have their first child after the age of 35. Age is a major factor and it is an ever-increasing cause of infertility problems. Furthermore, the HHS proclaim that about one-third of couples have fertility problems when the woman is over 35.

The aging process increases a woman’s chance of needing help with her pregnancy in several ways. The Office on Women’s Health cites that a woman’s ovaries may have become less able to release eggs which is why she may have problems ovulating normally. It could be that the woman has a smaller number of eggs left and the eggs she does have may not be as healthy. As a woman grows older, she is more prone to having health conditions that impede her ability to have a normal pregnancy. These health conditions can also lead to a higher risk in having a miscarriage.

If you are having difficulties getting pregnant and are considering seeking help getting pregnant, most experts believe you should wait one year before doing so unless you are 35 years or older. HHS defines infertility as “not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying. Or six, months, if a woman is 35 years or older.” Infertility can also be defined as a woman being able to get pregnant but unable to stay pregnant. They also state that as a woman reaches the age of 30, her chances of having a baby rapidly decrease every year. As mentioned before, health issues can play a part in increasing the likelihood of fertility problems. A woman should seek medical help with her pregnancy if she experiences irregular menstrual cycles or no menstruation at all. Painful periods should also be a cause for concern. HHS also list endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and if the woman has had more than one miscarriage as all reasons for her to talk to a doctor.

Speaking to your doctor is a good idea anyway if you are trying to get pregnant especially if you are in your 40s. Doctors can help by advising you on how to get your body prepared for having a baby and they can also answer any question you may have on fertility issues.